Types of Madd in Tajweedmoaazarfa
Types of Madd in Tajweed with Examples
The Qur’an, which was revealed to Muhammad S.A.W is the book of Allah and was revealed as a great source of law for mankind to lead a noble life. The most important thing is that the Qur’an must be read correctly and clearly, so as not to cause confusion or misunderstanding. To read correctly, the reader needs to follow the rules of Tajwid, which includes the form of Madd (vowel lengthening). There are many more issues than just this metaphor.
So, if you have questions like how many types of Madd there are, what Madd is, and what is normal Madd, you have come to the right article.
In this article, we are going to discuss several types of Madd and their examples in detail. But before we get to the type, let’s take a closer look at the Madd.
What Is Madd:
In Tajweed, Madd refers to lengthening certain vowel sounds in the Quran. The word “Madd” means “stretching” or “extend” in Arabic. There are three types of Madd in Tajweed:
Madd letters are : Alif (ا), Waw (و), Ya (ي), . These letters can be lengthened when alif is preceded by fatha or kasrah (ِ) or when waw is preceded by Dammah (ُ).
Huroof Al Madd are three letters:
Alif (ا) if it’s preceded by Fatha. (Ex: قَال)
Ya’ (ي) if it’s preceded by Kasrah (Ex: فِيه)
Waw ( و) if it’s preceded by Dammah (Ex: قالٌو)
Huroof al Madd:
Al-Madd in Tajweed comes from three letters (ا, و, ي) and they are collected in the Arabic word نُوحِيهَا. This letter must be silent without exception, but the letter that appears before the letter of the Madd must not be Hamza. In addition, the letter must have a vowel that depends on the letter of Madd, as follows:
If the letter of the Madd is Alif (ا), then the letter must have a fatha sign before it, and Alif itself is silent without any modification.
If the letter of the Madd is Waaw (و), the previous letter must have a dammah and Waaw is silent without any inflection.
If the letter of the Madd is Yaa’ (y), the preceding letter must be a kasra, and Yaa itself is silent without any inflection.
The letter before the Madd letter must contain the mentioned vowels, otherwise, the Madd is not used and the letter is not called a Madd letter. So, if the Madd letter is Waaw and the letter before has the fatha sign in place of Dammah, MADD will not be applied, and Waaw will not be a letter of Madd in this instance.
For example, in the Arabic word يومكم (for your day), you can see the Fatha of the letter Yaa, while the next letter Waaw is not a Madd letter. So, that Madd won’t be applied here.
The letter of Madd must be silent without any vowel, otherwise, there is a Sukoon. Al-Madd is not used if the letter Madd contains Sukun. In other words, أولئك, which means they are in English, you can observe the letter (أ) is an Alif that has Dammah and is followed by the letter (و) with Sukoon. Therefore, Madd is not applied here, and it is not the letter of Madd. And we utter it as أولئك. Also, in this word, the letter ل has fat-ha and is followed by ا, which has no vowel.
Types of Madd:
There are two different types of Madd in the Quran:
- Madd Asli/Tabi’y or Natural Madd.
- Madd Fare’e or Secondary Madd.
Natural Madd (Madd Asli / Tabi)
The first form of this natural madd is because this letter is an integral part of its existence and does not depend on the existence of Hamza (ء) or Sukoon (ْ). This can be seen in the difference between these two words: سَجَد- سَاجِد (سَاجِد) where the alif in (سَاجد) cannot exist without the presence of the natural Madd and its absence in (سَجَدَ) completely changed the structure and meaning of the word. Even in length, Madd Asli is natural since it is only stretched for 2 beats or harakat.
(هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَىٰ)- (ورأيتَ الناس يدخلون في دين الله أفواجا)
- Madd Asli can also be found in mnemonic letters: حي طاهر at the beginning of several surah of the Qur’an:
حم (1) وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ (2)
طسم (1) تلك آيات الكتاب المبين (2)
In these verses, Madd in the letter (حـ- the) is considered Natural Madd and is extended only 2 times.
- One type of Madd that falls under the category of Madd Asli is “The Lesser Connecting Madd” which is connected with the use of the masculine pronoun of third person singular in Arabic (هاء). This is one of the types of Madd in the Quran that occurs when this pronoun, which is not part of the word form, has a Dummah or Kasrah but is not followed by hamza or Sukoon- in case of pausing. Some examples of this type are:
(حكماً من أهلهِ وحكما من أهلها)- (فاعلم أنه لا إله إلا الله)- (كمن زيّن لهُ سوء عمله)
- Another type of Madd that belongs to Natural Madd is Substitute Madd. When the word ends with alif and tanween and the reader pauses, this alif should be stretched for two counts. These words provide some examples:
﴿ هُدًى ﴾-﴿ سُوًى ﴾– ﴿ أَحَدًا ﴾
Secondary Madd (Madd Far’ee ):
Meanwhile, Secondary Madd or Madd Faree is to extend the vowels but depends on the presence of Hamza or Sukoon. Some examples of Madd Far’i are:
(إلا أن يشاء الله)- (قال ربّ اجعل لي ءاية)
Types of Madd Far’ee :
Therefore, Madd Faree is divided into two groups:
- Madd Far’ee due to Hamza
- Madd Far’ee due to Sukoon
Madd Far’ee due to Hamza:
Attached Madd (Madd Muttasil): This form of Madd occurs when the letter Madd is followed by Hamzah in a word. It must be extended or extended for 4, 5, or 6 counts. Some examples of this Madd in the Qur’an are:
(وقالوا لو شاء الرحمن ما عبدناهم)- (فبأي آلاء ربكما تكذبان)
Separate Madd (Madd Monfasil): There is a similar situation with this form of Madd, but the main difference is that the letters Madd and Hamza are not in one word but in separate words. The reader is allowed to shorten the vowel 2 times or extend it four or five times. Review the madd in the following verses:
(إنا أعطيناك الكوثر)- (واعلموا أن فيكم رسول الله)- (فآمنت طائفة من بني إسرائيل وكفرت طائفة)
Exchange Madd (Madd Badal):
Unlike the previous types of Madd Far’ee, the exchange Madd is found in words where the Hamza precedes the Madd letter, and in this case the Madd is lengthened for 2 counts. Some examples of this Madd in the Quran include:
(وأنهار من ماء غير ءاسن)- (وإن الذين أُورثوا الكتاب)- (وإيتاء الزكاة)
Greater Connecting Madd:
Like lesser Connecting Madd, Greater Connecting Madd occurs when the muscular pronoun of third person singular with the mentioned conditions, comes at the end of a word and the following word starts with Hamza. The reader is allowed to lengthen this Madd for 2, 4, or 5 counts as in:
(ومبشراً برسول يأتي من بعدي اسمه أحمد)- (ولا يشرك بعبادة ربه أحدا)
Madd Far’ee due to Sukoon (Madd ‘Arid lil-sukoon)
This form of Madd Faree is the result of two letters in one word, the first letter is Madd and the other is all letters written in Harakah, but because of its position, it becomes Harakah Sukoon. This is found in the verse of the Qur’an:
(الرحمــن الرحيم)– (إن في ذلك لآيات لقوم يؤمنون)
In such cases, it is allowed to extend it 2, 4, or 6 times. However, if the reader does not stop on this, the letter is only twice as natural madd.
Madd Lazim or Compulsory Madd:
With Madd Lazim, the Sukoon that follows the Madd letter is original as opposed to the Sukoon with Madd ‘Arid lil-Sukoon in which the Sukoon exists only in case of stopping or pausing.
Types of Madd Lazim:
Madd Lazim has two types; one occurs in words (kalimi) and the other in letters (harfi). Each type is divided into Heavy Madd and Light Madd, and each is measured in 6 digits.
Kalimi Muthaqqal (severe):
The first form that occurs in the word is a compulsory madd that is the result of the following combination:
Madd letter + Saakin letter with Shaddah on it
In the next verse of the Qur’an there are two Madd Lazim (with alif and waaw) in which the letter Madd is written in the same word as the letter shadda saakin:
(قال أتحاجوني في الله وقد هدانِ)
Kalimi Mukhaffaf (light):
the second form is caused by a similar combination, but differs in the absence of the letter saakin in shaddah.
Madd letter + A sakin letter without Shaddah on it
(أثم إذا ما وقع آمنتم به آلآن وقد كنتم به تستعجلون)
Madd is a very important rule in Tajweed because it plays an important role in understanding the meaning of the verses of the Quran. Rasulullah SAW used to read Al-Qur’an with a long voice as taught in the rules of Tajweed today. Therefore, leaving Madd means that we do not read the Qur’an as it was revealed. Therefore, it is very important to learn how to read the verses correctly and to understand the types of Madd in the Qur’an and their uses.
We, at Tipyaan Academy, offer online courses to our Muslim brothers and sisters to improve their recitation of the Qur’an and gain the pleasure of Allah. Our experienced teachers teach the Qur’an most conveniently and effectively that allows students to read the verses with the correct pronunciation. So, join our online Tajweed class today to understand the types of materials and master their use.
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