What are Moon and Sun letters in Arabicmoaazarfa
What are Moon and Sun letters in Arabic?
Sun and Moon letters are different letter categories and their pronunciation varies depending on their interaction with the Arabic definite article Al (ال). This classification plays an important role in the Arabic language and grammar.
The solar(Sun) alphabet ( الحروف الشمسية) consists of fourteen letters: ب, ج, ح, خ, ف, ق, ك, م, و, هـ, ي, ا, ط, ء. Before the definite article “Al” (ال), these letters keep their original pronunciation without assimilation of the following consonants. For example, the word “Al-Kursi” (الكرسي), which means “chair”, is pronounced “Al-Kursi”, the “K” sound is different from the infinitive below.
The lunar(Moon) alphabet (الحروف القمرية) consists of fourteen letters: ت, ث, د, ذ, ر, ز, س, ش, ص, ض, ت, ظ, ل, ن. When these letters come before the definite article “Al” (ال), they master the pronunciation of the letter “L”. For example, the word “Al-Bayt” (البيت) meaning “house” is pronounced “Al-Bayt” with the sound “L” mixed with the consonant sound below.
In Arabic grammar, the definite article is called “Al” (ال). A prefix is placed before the noun to indicate definiteness. When combined with the letters Sun and Moon, the definite article can affect the pronunciation and assimilation of these letters.
For the letters Sun, when the definite article Al (ال) precedes them, the original pronunciation remains unaffected. They keep their unique sound without mastering the bottom line.
In the case of lunar letters, when the definite article “Al” (ال) is added, these letters are assimilated. In the definite article, the sound of the letter “L” (ل) is mixed with the following consonant sound, resulting in a changed pronunciation.
The definite article “Al” (ال) is an important part of Arabic grammar and is widely used in various meanings. It refers to a feature and refers to a specific entity or body. The relationship between the letters of the Sun and the Moon reflects the complex phonetic and grammatical nuances of the Arabic language.
Why they are called Sun and Moon letters?
It is said that in Arabic the sun and the moon mean the sun and the moon because of the words (الشمس) and (القمر) in Arabic. In the word (الشمس), the definite article al is written, but not spoken, but controlled by the letter after it (ش). On the other hand, the definite article in the word (القمر) is written and spoken.
Examples of Moon and Sun letters:
Here is an example of the letters Sun and Moon in Arabic:
Sun letters (الحروف الشمس):
ب (Baa): بَيْت (beach) – house
ج (Jeem): جَبَل (jabal) – mountain
ح (Haa): حَقِيبَة (haqeebah) – bag
خ (Khaa): خَارِطَة (khaartah) – map
ف (Faa): فَنْجَان (fanjaan) – cup
ق (Kaaf): قَلَم (pen) – pen
ك (Kaf): كِتَاب (kitaab) – book
م (Meem): مَدِينَة (madeenah) – city
و (Vav): وَرْدَة (wardah) – flower
هـ (Haa): هَاتِف (haatif) – telephone
ي (Ya): يَد (yad) – hand
ا (Alif): اِبْتِسَامَة (ibtisamah) – smile
ط (Taa): طَائِر (taair) – bird
ء (Hamza): ءَاخَر (akhir) – last
Moon letter (حروف القمر):
(Taa): تَفَاحَة (tafaahah) – remember
ث (Thaa): ثَلْج (thalj) – snow
D (Dal): دَرْس (teaching) – lesson
ذ (Tal): ذَهَب (thahab) – gold
ر (Ra): رَحْمَة (rahmah) – mercy
ز (Za): زَهْرَة (zahrah) – flower
س (Visible): سَمَاء (samaa) – the sky
ش (Shen): شَمْس (shams) – the sun
Sad (Sad): صَحْن (sahn) – plate
ض (Father): ضَوْء (daw’) – light
ط (Taa): طَقْس (taks) – air
ظ (Thaa): ظَلَام (talam) – darkness
ل (Lam): لِغَة (pronounced) – language
ن (afternoon): نَار (naar) – fire
These examples show different ways of pronunciation and assimilation of the letters Sun and Moon before the definite article Al (ال) in Arabic words.
Moon Letters in Arabic:
If someone asks what are Moon letters in Arabic, the fourteen letters are grouped together in this sentence: (ابغ حجق وخف عقيمه)
If the definite article al is followed by one of these letters (ا-ب-ج-ح-خ-غ-غ-ف-ق-ك-م-ه-و-ي), it is written and spoken. For example:
good → الخير
Indeed, the definite article is clearly pronounced when it is followed by one of the letters A, but it is important to note that the sound (a) found at the beginning of a is omitted when it is pronounced when it starts with another;
The word (Al-Fajr) has one of the letters of the month, so the article is written and spoken and the initial sound that is heard is similar to Hamza. But in the verse: (Walfjr), you will see that the sound of al has dropped (a) and we go directly from و to ل.
Sun letters in Arabic:
How many letters of Sun do we have left in Arabic? Another fourteen!
The Arabic letter Sun appears at the beginning of each word of this word:
The Sun letters in Arabic are found at the beginning of each word in this mnemonic:
(طب ثم صل رحماً تفز ضف ذا نعم — دع سوء ظن زر شريفاً للكرم) letters have one thing in common, they are pronounced either with the tongue or by touching the teeth as in ث and ذ, or the part at the front of the mouth like ت and د.
Basically, the sun letters in Arabic have two main features:
This is found in written form, but not spoken.
It is easy to see in words that begin with the definite article ال because the Sun Laam has Shadda above it.
Some examples of words that use the letter sun are:
sword ← السَّيفا
Identifying Lam as the letter Sun in Arabic and distinguishing it from Lam in specific writing can be a bit confusing. So, consider these words:
– the night ← اللَّيل
اللّاعب ← the player
الْلّيمون ← lemon
This word begins with the definite article and is followed by Lam as one of the letters Sun. Therefore, Lam, pronounced by Shaddah, is second, not Lam, in the definite article.
The main differences are:
From the previous example of the letters Sun and Moon in Arabic, the main difference between the two divisions can be drawn. This difference is also found in how Sun and Moon letters and words in the Qur’an:
In the Qur’an, we find Laam Sakenh in the definite article as in the verse with the letter A:
- (الْحَمْدُ لِلهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين)
- (وَمَا اَدْرَاكَ مَا الْقَارِعَة)
- (علَّمَه الْبَيَان)
This creates what is called ‘Idhar Kamari’, which is clearly the word ‘Lamhar’.
If there is no Sukoon on the Laam certain words with the letter of the sun; instead, the letter Sun has Shadda. For example:
- (قُلْ اَعُوضُ بِرَبِّ النَّاس)
This rule of Tajwid is called Idgham Shamsi because Lam in the article must be placed in the letter Sun next, and in this case, it becomes Mushadad.
In this article, we have explained the difference between the letters of the Sun and the Moon in Arabic and how to distinguish them in addition to helping you read some Arabic letters of the Sun and the Moon easily and without confusion.
If you need more knowledge about the Arabic language in order to be able to read the Qur’an correctly and accurately, you can apply for one of our online Arabic lessons, as well as Tajwid and Tajwid Al-Qur’an courses at the Tipyaan Academy
Our teachers are native Arabic graduates of Al-Azhar University, have degrees in the Quran, and are equipped to achieve your goals. So, join our course today and don’t miss your chance!
Join our Arabic basic classes now free trial!